How are LA battery plates made?

The reactive metals in starter batteries are held in flat plates, (1-2 mm in thickness). The plates start their life as a metal grid (lattice) primarily lead, allowing the reactive materials to be rolled and pressed into the spaces within the lattice. Lead though is quite soft and requires the addition of a small amount of hardener to cope with the automated manufacturing process, Starter batteries are therefore often characterised by the hardener used eg antimony (antimonial battery), calcium (calcium-calcium battery), hybrid (different hardeners for positive and negative plates respectively).

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